Blood Clotting Process
Blood coagulation or clotting is the most important process which helps in preventing loss of excess blood from the body during an injury. However, blood clotting process mainly depends on the severity of an injury and this process may take place within 2 minutes. The platelets present in the blood immediately start sticking to the bruised edges of the blood vessel.
They release chemicals and attract more platelets and the external bleeding stops when a plug of platelets come together. Blood platelets which are responsible for blood clotting, form a plug at the injury site preventing the blood flow. Blood clotting is a little complex to understand and the following article provides you with the necessary information.
Clotting factors which are small molecules cause Fibrin which are strands of blood-borne materials. These small molecules seal the wound internally by sticking to each other. Blood gets dissolved after a few days, healing the cut blood vessel. Thus, blood provides a system called clotting mechanism that gets activated instantaneously and which can stop the flow of blood immediately after an injury.
Process of Blood Clotting
Blood clotting process usually happens in two steps and they are Primary and Secondary Hematosis. Read on to know more about them.
- Platelets and the Thrombin System are two major facets that are responsible for blood clotting.
- Primary hematosis is also known as platelet activation during which the platelets get activated to form a plug at the injured site.
- Platelets are present in the bone marrow and they are tiny cellular elements.
- They travel in the bloodstream and when ever bleeding occurs, chemical reactions take place.
- These chemical reactions change the surface of the platelets to sticky.
- During an injury, blood vessels get damaged and a sub-endothelium protein known as von Willebrand factor gets exposed.
- These protein factors recruit collagen so that blood reacts to these clotting factors helping the platelets to form clumps.
- These clumps formed at the site of the injury form a plug of platelets that help in preventing the flow of blood.
- Activated platelets start sticking to the walls of the blood vessel at the site of bleeding and within a few minutes they form a White clot.
- The clump of platelets together look white in color to a naked eye.
- The coagulation of clotting factors are the proteins that react with each other during an injury.
- Several blood proteins present in the Thrombin system get activated when bleeding occurs.
- These activated proteins engage themselves in chemical reactions and produce Fibrin.
- Fibrin is a long sticky string that forms strands that stick to the walls of the blood vessel.
- These factors react forming a cascade of reactions resulting in producing fibrinogen which converts into fibrin strands.
- These fibrin strands help in strengthening the plug formed by platelets.
- They clump together to form complex strands like a web.
- Red blood cells get caught in this web forming a Red clot.
- These strands of Fibrin binds all the platelets together tightening the clot to make it more stable.
- Tissue factor pathway is considered as the starting of the clotting process which concentrates mainly on the production of prothrombin activator.
- Contact pathway also plays an important role in increasing the coagulation factors.
Once the prothrombin activator is formed the very next step is to form the thrombin. Fibrinogen and prothrombin are two proteins of a specific plasma synthesized in liver. It is very important to activate these proteins for proper blood clotting mechanism.
Fibrinogen converts into fibrin strands and they form a mesh providing support to the platelets at the injury site stopping the blood flow immediately. This is how a blood clotting process happens during the time of an injury.